Module 4: Transformative Potential of Community Radio
Session 1: Radio Studio Operation 101 (Enhancing Media Skills)

Duration: Two hours

       In Community Radio many of the broadcasters are volunteers, so knowing how to operate radio studio enables them to do their programs independently. However women seldom have access to studio operation and depend on male technicians. Training women in studio operation is part of the empowering potential of Community Radio. The workshop seeks to equip the participants with the effective use of this technology. Radio Studio Operation 101 is the first of four sessions that aims to strengthen the participants’ skills in radio production. This two hour session will share the basics of radio studio operation by familiarising participants with a make shift radio studio, at the end of the session the participants would have been able to:

Session Topics:


A radio recording studio or a mobile recording studio set up at the training venue with at least a mixer, Microphones, CD/player, speakers, headphones and a computer to record on.

Session Plan:

Topic / Activity Duration Teaching Aids/Equipment
Topic: Radio Studio Operation and its Equipment (Lecture and Demonstration) 40 min Studio and CDs, MDs, Cassettes, radio plugs etc. Text for trainer
Activity 1: Mapping out the Path of Sound 20 min. Photocopies of the studio set up, colored transparent markers or crayons, radio scripts (doc file)
Activity 2: A Mini Radio Program (Hands on Exercise) 60 min Studio, CDs, Mds or MP3s

Topic: Radio Studio Operation and Its Equipment (Lecture and Demonstration)

    This session takes place in the studio so it is advisable to work in a smaller group (6-10). If the training is for a bigger group, one group will work in the studio, while the other group should have a different workshop or be given some exercises. Distribute the handouts at the beginning of the session, so that participants can take notes. Explaining how the mixer and each equipment are connected to it is being operated by demonstrating it in front of the participants. Link: Text for trainers (doc file).

The Radio Equipment (with user guide)

  1. The mixer is the center piece of every studio. It is divided into a part for input and another for output.
    1. Input: Each equipment is connected to a track on the input section of the mixer.
      1. Each track has a set of bottoms and knobs of a track. Explain them starting with the fader.
      2. The equipment connected to the input section of the mixer creates some kind of sound, such as: the microphones, CD player, Computer etc. How are they operated?
      3. Mix different sound sources together, do cross fading.
    2. Output: The output of the mixer is connected to different equipment are connected to this part of the mixer.
      1. The headphones, speakers, the recording devices, transmitter etc.
  2. Monitoring the meters of the mixer is crucial for quality recording.
  3. Record something on the computer and save it on Audacity. (Editing is explained in the Digital Sound Editing with Audacity session)
  4. Produce a microphone/speaker feedback. Why did this happen and how it can be avoided? (E.g. if microphones and speakers are in the same room, by turning of the speakers and using headphones).
  5. Let participants ask questions and answer them as simple as possible.
  6. Do not explain every single button but only those that are relevant for the radio production.

Facilitator’s Note:

    Operating a studio might look complicated but we know that basic studio operation is easy and can be learned by almost everyone. It is the facilitator’s task to ease people's fear or respect for the ‘technical’ by using simple language that is familiar to participants. Examples:

Text for the trainer (doc file)

Activity 1: Mapping out the path of the sound

    The objective of mapping out the path of sound is for the participants to identify how one equipment is linked to another. For example to identify how sound from the microphone gets to the computer where it is being recorded or from the CD player to the speaker where we can hear it. Understanding the path of sound makes easier to assemble a studio, identify certain technical problems and how to solve them (ex: if the wrong fader is opened). Instructions to the activity are as follows:

(Links to Additional Documents)

Scripts for the mapping out the path of the sound exercise (doc file)

Mobile studio plan (pdf file)

Mobile studio plan (for adaption to your studio set up) (Open Office Draw file)

Activity 2: A Mini Radio Program (Hands on Exercise)

    A maximum of 10 participants in the studio to ensure that each participant gets a chance to operate the equipment and play the host or radio guest. Depending on the number of participants each participant has 5 – 10 min. Instructions to the activity are as follows:

Facilitator’s Note:

    Be patient and encourage each participant that she can do it. Sometimes they are nervous if the trainer stands right besides them. If so you might ask one of the participants who already had her turn as technician to assist the next participants. This is also a way of monitoring if the participant actually understood the process.

Airtime is valuable, so it is important to plan out things two to three steps in advance. Here are some helpful tips to remember:

Synthesis Points:

Hand outs: Link: Summary of studio explanation with illustrations (Print two slides on pages as hand outs) (Ppt file)

Additional Resources:

SACBA Training Resource Kit (available on CD)
By South Australian Community Broadcasters Association
Order from Radio Adelaide, Australia

UNESCO Community Radio Handbook
By Fraser, Colin & alt. - 2001, 106 pages
UNESCO 1, rue Miollis 75732 Paris Cedex 15, Tel (331)45 68 40 25, Fax (331)45 6855 85
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. as pdf:


Training Materials:

Learn About Audio Online and Co mmunity Radio
APC – The Association for Progressive Communications -%20Basics

Community Radio: Tools

A selection of equipment with reviews of products and price estimates.

Low Cost Radio Broadcasting
By Rammath Bhat, Voices and Rukmin Wijemanne, Asia Pacific Broadcasting Union, India
Primer, 19 pages, downloadable at